The best way to sandbox a web application is in a FreeBSD jail. Taking this a step further and placing a caching nginx reverse proxy in front of it can increase performance. The backend application server does not need to be on the same server as the internet-facing application server.Read more...
To simplify server management I create “meta” packages in FreeBSD ports that can generate a package with only dependencies on other packages. This allows to me to just install this 1 package on the target server and have it pull in all of the packages that I want on there. I assign each server specific “roles” and only install 1 or 2 packages per server depending on which roles they fulfill. The roles may be one of “dev”, “web”, “ports-dev”, “jail”, etc. This ensures that all servers fulfilling specific roles will always have the proper packages installed. For some applications, I use a dedicated jail with a meta package that only pulls in the required dependencies for that application to run. For instance, on a PHP application jail, the meta package may pull in nginx, php, eaccelerator, git, etc.Read more...
For additional security layers and separation, I run my web applications inside of dedicated jails. This has been an ongoing progression for me. I will layout where I started, where I progressed, and how I do it now.Read more...
For years I have ran into this error while running
# make installworld [...] ===> sys/boot/i386/boot2 (install) cc -Os -fno-guess-branch-probability -fomit-frame-pointer -fno-unit-at-a-time -mno-align-long-strings -mrtd -mregparm=3 -DUSE_XREAD -DUFS1_AND_UFS2 -DFLAGS=0x80 -DSIOPRT=0x3f8 -DSIOFMT=0x3 -DSIOSPD=9600 -I/usr/src/sys/boot/i386/boot2/../../common -I/usr/src/sys/boot/i386/boot2/../btx/lib -I. -Wall -Waggregate-return -Wbad-function-cast -Wcast-align -Wmissing-declarations -Wmissing-prototypes -Wnested-externs -Wpointer-arith -Wshadow -Wstrict-prototypes -Wwrite-strings -Winline --param max-inline-insns-single=100 -march=i386 -ffreestanding -mpreferred-stack-boundary=2 -mno-mmx -mno-3dnow -mno-sse -mno-sse2 -mno-sse3 -msoft-float -m32 -std=gnu99 -S -o boot2.s.tmp /usr/src/sys/boot/i386/boot2/boot2.c sed -e '/align/d' -e '/nop/d' < boot2.s.tmp > boot2.s rm -f boot2.s.tmp cc -m32 -c boot2.s ld -static -N --gc-sections -nostdlib -m elf_i386_fbsd -Ttext 0x2000 -o boot2.out /usr/obj/usr/src/sys/boot/i386/boot2/../btx/lib/crt0.o boot2.o sio.o objcopy -S -O binary boot2.out boot2.bin btxld -v -E 0x2000 -f bin -b /usr/obj/usr/src/sys/boot/i386/boot2/../btx/btx/btx -l boot2.ldr -o boot2.ld -P 1 boot2.bin btxld: No such file or directory *** [boot2.ld] Error code 1 Stop in /usr/src/sys/boot/i386/boot2. *** [realinstall] Error code 1
Most of the posts mention bad timestamps or incorrect date. I’ve always been running ntpd though and running
make buildworld before
My longterm workaround was to
make -C /usr/src/sys/boot/i386 before running
Recently this workaround stopped working for me. Looking into it more, I realized that I was applying custom patches to the src tree and then removing them before
make installworld. This was changing timestamps of source files, causing a rebuild during
make installworld. Changing my scripts to leave the patch applied until after everything is installed solves it.